By Vincent P. Gutschick
1. practical Biology and Plant Strategies.- A. useful Biology.- B. the necessities on crops of their progress and Function.- C. The Abiotic surroundings: Plant Autecology.- (i) Resources.- (ii)Resource demanding situations confronted by means of Plants.- D. Adaptive Strategies.- (i) application of the Strategic View.- (ii) Explaining diversifications, in variety and in value, essentially in Wild Growth.- (iii) Indicating Routes to Crop Improvement.- (iv) Examples of goal capabilities and Adaptations.- E. 4 ideas of Adaptive Strategies.- F. The Calculation of vigorous expenditures and Benefits.- (i) 3 forms of Costs.- (ii) How strength expenditures impact progress and Yield.- (iii) Optimizing the Energetics of a Plant.- G. towards a Quantification of probability and threat Management.- H. whilst and the way quick to install Strategies.- I. Effectiveness and obstacles of Strategic Adaptations.- (i) inner and exterior Limitations.- (ii) obstacles to Adaptive Strategies.- J. extra Strategic issues for the Biotic Environment.- 2. Mineral Nutrition.- A. crucial components within the surroundings and Their Availability to Plants.- (i) lively charges of buying Nutrients.- (ii) Soil Processes.- B. 4 forms of Challenges.- (i) Low Nutrient Availability in Soil.- (ii) Physiological obstacles on inner shipping and Use.- (iii) critical Imbalances between Nutrients.- (iv) Toxicity of Nonnutrients.- C. outcomes of dietary Challenges.- (i) normal and Ecological Challenges.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive Responses, Their expenditures and Benefits.- (i) Autecological Responses.- (ii) Responses inside Plant Communities.- three. Photosynthesis.- A. CO2, Photons, and Their Availability to the Plant.- (i) the fundamental Photosynthetic response and Its Constraints.- (ii) CO2 and Water Exchange.- (iii) CO2 and Photon delivery in complete Canopies.- (iv) Measures of Photosynthesis.- (v) web Determinants of Photosynthesis.- B. strength and Soil source makes use of: expenses and Benefits.- (i) bills and merits in Photosynthesis Alone.- (ii) Optimizing Leaf Energetics: An Example.- (iii) Use of Water and Mineral Nutrients.- (iv) Miscellaneous expenditures and Benefits.- C. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Resources.- (ii) Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) shipping Limitations.- (iv) Nonresource Challenges.- D. effects of demanding situations to Photosynthesis.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- E. Adaptive Responses, Their expenditures and Benefits.- (i) Responses to Low or Erratic source Availability.- (ii) Responses to Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) Responses to move Limitations.- (iv) Responses to Nonresource Challenges.- four. Water Relations.- A. Introduction.- (i) Water in Plant constitution and Function.- (ii) Water power and Terminology.- (iii) Water shipping in Soil.- (iv) Water Uptake through Roots.- (v) Water shipping from Roots to Leaves.- (vi) Water intake in Photosynthesis.- (vii) Cost-Benefit Analyses in Water Use.- B. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Water.- (ii) delivery Limitations.- (iii) extra Water: Flooding.- (iv) Salinity, a Nonresource Hazard.- C. outcomes of Challenges.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive thoughts, Their bills and Benefits.- (i) options for Low Water Availability.- (ii) recommendations of Salt Tolerance.- (iii) innovations of Flood Tolerance.- (iv) Responses inside Ecosystems.- five. Integrative Processes.- A. New gains in long term Coordination of All source Uses.- B. Reproduction.- (i) The Vegetative-to-Reproductive Switch.- (ii) Seeds: Many and Small, or Few and Large?.- (iii) Senescence and source Scavenging.- (iv) Flower and Fruit Abortion.- (v) Pollination.- C. Germination.- D. Morphogenesis, particularly Photomorphogenesis.- E. keep watch over of Biotic Interactions.- (i) Pests and Diseases.- (ii) Symbionts.- (iii) Conspecifics and Their Gene Pool.- References.- Symbols.
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Extra resources for A Functional Biology of Crop Plants
Me. For N z fixation, the net capital cost is typically Cnet = C - S :::: (5 - 2 = 3) g glucose per g N. The C cost for acquiring nitrate is almost exclusively ascribed to the greater mass of root needed per g N in the shoot to acquire low-concentration nitrate, relative to the smallest root mass needed when nitrate is superabundant. The minimal root mass is needed for water uptake and other functions. 12) In one case, Gutschick and Kay (1986) calculated C as high as 42 g glucose per g N ! ) Maintenance costs are calculated on the capital mass me per g N 21 Functional Biology acquired.
The C cost for acquiring nitrate is almost exclusively ascribed to the greater mass of root needed per g N in the shoot to acquire low-concentration nitrate, relative to the smallest root mass needed when nitrate is superabundant. The minimal root mass is needed for water uptake and other functions. 12) In one case, Gutschick and Kay (1986) calculated C as high as 42 g glucose per g N ! ) Maintenance costs are calculated on the capital mass me per g N 21 Functional Biology acquired. 050 g glucose per gDW per day (Penning de Vries, 1975), and by the effective lifetime of the capital structures.
To express the benefit on a per-unit-mass of resource basis. we need to know the fractional mass content (or use. in the case of water) of resource i in dry tissue, dm/dmp =/;. Thus the benefit per 23 Functional Biology mass of resource is dE. drrtp bg = - dmp dm; dEe 1 = (-)-. 13) /; The source of energy for the plant is photosynthate, generated at a rate P total per plant. The energy is used for (1) basic biosynthesis or embodiment in dry matter, wherein raw photosynthate plus final resource forms such as ammonium become proteins, carbohydrates, and such; (2) resource acquisition by roots and leaves and internal resource processing, as of nitrate to ammonium; and (3) maintenance processes.