Download A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to by Donald Ringe PDF

By Donald Ringe

This booklet is the 1st on the grounds that 1897 to explain the earliest reconstructable levels of the prehistory of English. It outlines the grammar of Proto-Indo-European, considers the adjustments wherein one dialect of that prehistoric language built into Proto-Germanic, and gives a close account of the grammar of Proto-Germanic. the 1st quantity in Don Ringe's A Linguistic historical past of English could be of significant curiosity to all students and scholars of comparative Indo-European and Germanic linguistics, the background of English, and ancient linguists. the following quantity will think about the improvement of Proto-Germanic into previous English. next volumes will describe the attested heritage of English from the previous English interval to the current.

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Extra info for A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English)

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3 (i) Aspect stems Verb stems expressed aspect. They fell into two purely formal classes, called ‘athematic’ and ‘thematic’. 4 (i) ); the former apparently always ended in a nonsyllabic. Some aspect stems were aYxless, while others were marked by one of a wide variety of aYxes, as follows. Present (imperfective) stems exhibited the widest variety of aYxes. Basic presents included at least the following types. Athematic presents: . e. g. *h1e´s- $ *h1s- ‘be’, *h1e¯´d- $ *h1e´d- ‘eat’; 28 Proto-Indo-European .

Some athematic verb stems and nominals exhibited Wxed accent (mostly on the root), but most exhibited alternating accent; there were several patterns, but in all of them the surface accent was to the left in one group of 22 Proto-Indo-European forms (the nominative and accusative cases of nominals, the active singular of verbs) and to the right in the rest. It seems clear that stems and endings could be underlyingly accented or not, that the leftmost underlying accent surfaced, and that words with no underlying accent were assigned accent on the leftmost syllable by default; but not all the details have been worked out satisfactorily.

4 (i) above) had the accent on the same syllable throughout the paradigm; thematic verb stems also have Wxed accent in the attested languages, and most such stems clearly did in PIE as well (though there is some uncertainty about simple thematic presents; see now Kim 2002, ch. 6). Some athematic verb stems and nominals exhibited Wxed accent (mostly on the root), but most exhibited alternating accent; there were several patterns, but in all of them the surface accent was to the left in one group of 22 Proto-Indo-European forms (the nominative and accusative cases of nominals, the active singular of verbs) and to the right in the rest.

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