By Toshihiko Hara
This is the ebook to target a brand new phenomenon rising within the twenty-first century: the quickly getting older and reducing inhabitants of a well-developed kingdom, specifically, Japan. The that means of this phenomenon has been effectively clarified because the attainable old final result of the demographic transition from excessive start and dying charges to low ones. Japan has entered the post-demographic transitional part and should be the fastest-shrinking society on the planet, top different Asian international locations which are experiencing a similar drastic alterations. the writer used the ancient statistics, compiled through the Statistic Bureau, Ministry of inner Affairs and Communications in 2006 and inhabitants projections for published in 2012 by means of the nationwide Institute of inhabitants and Social protection examine, to teach the earlier and destiny improvement of the dependency ratio from 1891 to 2060. Then, using the inhabitants lifestyles desk and web replica fee, the results of accelerating existence expectancy and declining fertility at the dependency ratio have been saw individually. ultimately, the historic relationships between women’s survival charges at reproductive age, the theoretical fertility cost to take care of the substitute point and the recorded overall fertility fee (TFR) have been analyzed. historic statement confirmed TFR adapting to the theoretical point of fertility with a undeniable time lag and such as women’s survival charges at reproductive age. Women’s expanding lifespan and survival charges can have inspired determination making to reduce the danger of childbearing. no matter if the theoretical fertility cost meets the alternative point, women’s perspectives of minimizing the chance may well stay unchanged simply because for ladies the cost–benefit imbalance in childbearing remains to be too excessive in Japan. in line with the findings, the writer discusses the sustainability of jap society on the subject of nationwide funds, social safeguard reform, relations rules, immigration regulations and group polices.
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Additional resources for A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan
That means the basic idea of the bond issuance should be changed. This idea is outdated because the working age population, which is the taxpayers and the child population as additional newcomers in consumption market are shrinking. As they are the basic effective demand for economic growth. In fact, the huge outstanding of JBGs is undertook mostly by Japanese banks and institutional investors. Their resources are deposits and savings of enterprises and individuals (above all, retired and aged persons).
The responsibility for child/elder care shifted from the family as a whole to woman as an individual, as well as the childbearing decision-making process. As women’s longevity increased, there was greater incentive to reduce the number of births in order to improve the health and wellbeing of both mother and children. On the other hand, the reduction of average number of births changed the life course of women. As the timing of marriage and childbearing became more flexible, education and employment opportunities for women had increased.
6 % under Bill Clinton and dropped to 35 % under George W. Bush. The upper limit of income tax in Japan was also reduced from 70 % (1984−1986) to 50 % (1989−1998), 37 % (1999−2006), and then increased slightly to 40 % (2007−). Simultaneously, the progressive tax was also reduced from 15 (1984−1986) to 6 steps (MOF 2013c). As generally known, a reduction in upper limit and weakening the progression in taxation would promote inequality in after-tax incomes and transfers. Stieglitz did not mention the demographic aspect of the inequality problems.