By Valentin Igochine
During the previous century, world-wide strength intake has risen dramatically, which results in a quest for brand new strength resources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in sizzling plasmas is an enticing method of remedy the power challenge, with plentiful gasoline, inherent defense and no long-lived radioactivity. even if, one of many limits on plasma functionality is because of some of the periods of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that can ensue. The physics and keep an eye on of those instabilities in glossy magnetic confinement fusion units is the topic of this ebook. Written by way of most desirable specialists, the contributions will supply useful reference and updated learn studies for "old arms" and newbies alike.
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Additional resources for Active Control of Magneto-hydrodynamic Instabilities in Hot Plasmas
It grows with the Alfvenic time qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 (c $ s1A ; sA ¼ vaA ; vA ¼ l Bmi n, where n is the plasma density and a is the 0 characteristic length of the instability). This time is very short and ideal instability poses ultimate limits for plasma confinement. These instabilities are called ‘‘kink’’ instabilities because the plasma displacement due to such an instability tilts and kinks the plasma. Ideal MHD, which implies zero resistivity, preserves the plasma topology and is sufficient to describe the process.
A particular plasma current can be achieved only for a given range of the À plasma Á densities and stable operation is possible only in a restricted area in the Ip ; ne space, shown in the so-called Hugill diagram (Fig. 10). If the stability boundary is crossed, the discharge is either terminated abruptly (plasma disruption, hard limit), or the plasma confinement degrades over a longer time (soft limit). There are three main stability boundaries on this diagram: (i) runaway limit, (ii) current limit, and (iii) Greenwald limit.
The mean free path in hot plasmas becomes very long, but at the same time in a magnetized plasma, for perpendicular directions, the mean free path is roughly the gyroradius, k % rL . This value is typically very small and the condition is fulfilled. Consequently, the fluid description can be applied to the plasma behavior perpendicular to the magnetic field, which is typically the case for our analysis. In the context of the fusion problem, the MHD model provides a reasonably accurate description of macroscopic equilibrium and stability .