By Sandra Dawson (auth.)
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Extra resources for Analysing Organisations
F. W. Taylor, famous for the development of the school of 'scientific management', identified money as the single most important goal for workers and thus the key to their 10 A Framework for Organisational Analysis motivation (Taylor, 1911). There are substantial difficulties with Taylor's analysis (see Rose, 1975, and Littler, 1982, for a further discussion). , White, 1981; Smith, 1983). One common response is for workers voluntarily to resist the lure of more money for fear that if they seize the bait they will suffer job losses, since fewer people will be required to do 'faster' work.
All these wider factors will have influence within the workplace on such characteristics as culture, strategy, technology, products, structure and size. These in tum will influence the particular nature of an individual's work, which will both be affected by and affect her attitudes to work. Outside the 6 A Framework for Organisational Analysis workplace an individual is much influenced by her particular family, community and social class location and experience, which will clearly also be embedded in the wider social context and, together with individuality, account for an individual's abilities and experiences.
For example, creativity in artwork is the output which most managers would expect from their graphic designers. However, precise criteria for its assessment are diffult to identify. On the other hand, it is easy to monitor the number of hours a designer works. But it would be shortsighted to reward hours worked simply because they are easily measurable if they are of relatively little interest to management. In this case the answer might be to give the designers as full and speedy a feedback as possible on the success of their designs in terms of promotional or advertising criteria, but to be very careful about distorting performance by an inappropriate motivational device.